Ascariasis is a disease from human waste. It is a worm infection. Ascariasis nursing care can be planned againts the worm called ascariasis lombicoides in next paragraph.
Ascariasis usually called worm infection. This ascariasis is caused by ascaris lumbricoides. After penetrating the body skin, ascariasis lumbicoides ova will hatch and larva come out, the larva can penetrate in intestine wall and reach lung through blood flow. After 10 days in capillary and lung, these larvas migrate to bronchiole, bronchi, trachea, and epiglottis. There, the larva can be swallowed and return to intestine lumen until the larvas grow up.
This ascariasis occur in world wide, but it is usually occur in tropic country with bad sanitation like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, etc. This is because the farmer use the waste as a nightsoli. In United State, this disease often occur in 12 years old children.
Etiology of Ascariasis
The main core of ascariasis nursing care is to know the cause of the infection. Ascaris Lumbricoides, a roundworm which is contaminated with human waste. The transmission can be occurred directly (eating the contaminated soil) or indirectly (eating vegetables with contaminated soil or unclean vegetable)
Sign and symptoms
Some of the sign and symptoms for ascariasis are as follows;
- Larva that migrates through lympatci system and circulation system will show symptoms. If larva migrated to lung, pneumonitis sign and symptoms can appear.
- No sign and symptoms of infection
- Severe disease that make pain, vomit, nausea, anxious, insomnia, and intestine obstruction
- Uncomfortable feeling in the abdomen
- Vomiting or excreting roundworm in feces.
In ascariasis nursing care, nurses should collaborate with other health care workers to get right nursing diagnosis for ascariasis.
- Microscopic identification toward ova in feces or mature roundworm observation which is excreted in rectal or mouth. If those are occurred, then diagnosis of ascariasis is positive.
- If larva that is in alveoli, X-ray shows bronchovascular sign, it is like infiltration of pneumonitis area and widening of hilar
- Blood test shows eosinophilia in large number.
- Antihelmintic can paralyzed roundworm temporary so peristaltic will excrete the round out of body
- Mebendazole and albendazole block the roundworm nutrition
- Benzimidazole has contraindication toward pregnant patient and severe infection patient because the medicine can cause ectopic migration
- For intestinal obstruction, nasogastric suction controls vomit; if suction can be stopped, piperazine second dose is prescribed for next 24 hours
- Surgery is needed if there is no progress in medication.
Ascariasis Nursing care
Ascariasis nursing care plan are as follows:
- Isolation is not necessary, using toilet and cleaning the bed cover properly can be a standard preventive procedure
- Inform patient to prevent infection with washing hand procedure. Especially before meal and after defecation, and change the underwear and bed cover routinely.
- Inform patient about side effect of medication
- Be careful to piperazine has contraindication toward patient with epilepsy, abdominal pain, headache, and urticarial. Pyrantel makes feces and vomit looked redness and uncomfortable feeling in the abdomen, headache, and bruise. Albendazole and mebendazole make abdominal pain and diarrhea.