Thrombosis and aneurysm could occur anywhere in the body, including femoral and popliteal artery. So, here is femoral and popliteal aneurysm nursing care. Make sure you’ve done the femoral and popliteal aneurysm nursing care correctly.
This kind of aneurysm could develop progressively and it should be perform elective surgery to prevent complications like gangrene.
Femoral and popliteal aneurysm are caused by progressive aterosclerosis changes that occur in medial artery wall (mayor peripheral artery). This aneurysm form can be a fusiform like spindle or saccular. This aneurysm form can be a single segmental or multiple segment lesions. In some cases occurred both leg and other arteries aneurysm like in abdominal aorta or iliac artery. The frame of this clinical aneurysm is a progressive with thrombosis, emboli, and gangrene at last. Elective surgery before complication of the aneurysm can rise better prognosis.
The main causes of femoral and popliteal aneurysm are as follow:
- Bacterial infection
- Congenital defect in artery wall
- Reconstructive surgery of peripheral vascular (it can cause suture line aneurysm, a condition where blood clots form second lumen, it also called aneurysm false)
- Trauma that is caused by dull and sharp trauma
Sign and Symptoms
Patient with femoral and popliteal aneurysm may report some signs and symptoms as follows:
- Popliteal aneurysm will feel pain in popliteal cavity, edema, and venous distension
- Femoral and popliteal aneurysm can be signed by severe ischemia at upper and lower leg. It is caused by acute thrombosis
- Acute thrombosis aneurysm symptoms like severe pain, no pulse, the upper and lower leg become in low temperature and dark color, even gangrene
- Distal petechial hemorrhage develops to emboli aneurysm.
- If patient has femoral aneurysm, the diagnosis can be raised with bilateral palpation that shows pulsatile bump in inguinal ligament
- If there is thrombosis, palpation detects solid bump and no pulsatile in it
- Arteriography can detect linked aneurysm, especially an aneurysm in abdominal aorta and iliac artery
- Ultrasonography can help determine femoral or aneurysm size
- Bypass surgery and artery reconstruction with autogenic safenonousa vein graft
- Amputation if there is arterial occlusion that makes severe ischemia and gangrene.
Femoral and Popliteal Aneurysm Nursing Care
Corrective pre-operative femoral and popliteal aneurysm nursing care:
- Evaluate the circulation status, give attention to pulse location and quality of peripheral pulse in leg
- Prescribe prophylaxis antibiotic or anticoagulant
- Discuss with patient about the operation procedure
- Monitor sign and symptoms of early thrombosis symptoms of graft occlusion like no pulse, skin and sensation of skin decrease, and severe pain), infection, and fever
Post-operative femoral and popliteal aneurysm nursing care of artery reconstruction:
- Palpate the distal pulse every 24 hours early, and palpate routinely after the first 24 hours palpation. Correlate the finding with pre-operative circulation assessment. Make a mark on patient’s pulse so that can assess the pulse easy
- Help patient to walk after surgery to prevent venousis and thrombus formulation
- Ask the patient to inform the health practitioners about symptoms recurrence that are caused by safenosa vein graft, the symptoms are like failure of graft procedure or other aneurysm that can occur after
- If patient has done popliteal artery resection , explain the patient that the inflammation can be there for long time. If the patient is given anti-embolism stocking, make sure the stocking is suit for patient and teach him/her how to use it. Remind the patient not to use tight clothes
- Explain the patient about the important of blood test to monitor anti-coagulant therapy. Remind the patient to avoid trauma, smoking, and aspirin. Show the patient how to prevent bleeding like how to use electric razor.
- Ask the patient to inform bleeding sign like gingiva bleeding, bruised, or melena.